on nom de plume “revolting” yet advocate of prescribed practical outlook person (a la Aquinas-Summa Theologica II-I, Q.71/75) Voltaire 1694-1778 — The deeply Catholic Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote to his father the year of Voltaire’s death, saying, “The arch-scoundrel Voltaire has finally kicked the bucket!”

 

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Acerbic “revolting”     😉       Voltaire

Nicolas de Largillière, François-Marie Arouet dit Voltaire (vers 1724-1725) -001.jpg

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltaire#Religion

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A  writer such as Voltaire would have intended his nom de plume (pen name)  to also convey its connotations of speed and daring. These come from associations with words such as “voltige” (acrobatics on a trapeze or horse), “volte-face” (a spinning about to face one’s enemies), and “volatile” (originally, any winged creature). “Arouet” was not a noble name fit for his growing reputation, especially given that name’s resonance with “à rouer” (“to be broken on the wheel” – a form of torture then still prevalent) and “roué” (a “débauché“).

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Because of his well-known criticism of the Church, which he had refused to retract before his death, Voltaire was denied a Christian burial, but friends managed to bury his body secretly at the Abbey of Scellières in Champagne before this prohibition had been announced. His heart and brain were embalmed separately.

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On 11 July 1791, the National Assembly of France, which regarded him as a forerunner of the French Revolution, had his remains brought back to Paris to enshrine him in the Panthéon. It is estimated that a million people attended the procession, which stretched throughout Paris. There was an elaborate ceremony, complete with an orchestra, and the music included a piece that André Grétry had composed specially for the event, which included a part for the “tuba curva” (an instrument that originated in Roman times as the cornu but had recently been revived under a new name.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Aquinas#Nature_of_God

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divine_law

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Divine law is eternal law, meaning that since God is infinite, then his law must also be infinite and eternal.

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Following St. Augustine of Hippo, Thomas defines sin as “a word, deed, or desire, contrary to the eternal law.”   It is important to note the analogous nature of law in Thomas’s legal philosophy. Natural law is an instance or instantiation of eternal law. Because natural law is that which human beings determine according to their own nature (as rational beings), disobeying reason is disobeying natural law and eternal law. Thus eternal law is logically prior to reception of either “natural law” (that determined by reason) or “divine law” (that found in the Old and New Testaments). In other words, God’s will extends to both reason and revelation. Sin is abrogating either one’s own reason, on the one hand, or revelation on the other, and is synonymous with “evil” (privation of good,  or privatio boni). Thomas, like all Scholastics, generally argued that the findings of reason and data of revelation cannot conflict, so both are a guide to God’s will for human beings

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Summa, II–I, Q.71, art.6″. Newadvent.org.

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^ Summa, II–I, Q.75, art.1. “For evil is the absence of the good, which is natural and due to a thing.”

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Like Aquinas 5 centuries before Voltaire, Voltaire, above all, advocated a prescribed practical outlook.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candide#Philosophy

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As expected by Voltaire, Candide has enjoyed both great success and great scandal. Immediately after its secretive publication, the book was widely banned because it contained religious blasphemy, political sedition and intellectual hostility hidden under a thin veil of naïveté.  However, with its sharp wit and insightful portrayal of the human condition, the novel has since inspired many later authors and artists to mimic and adapt it.

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Today, Candide is recognised as Voltaire’s magnum opus   and is listed as part of the Western canon and one of the great achievements of Western literature; it is arguably taught more than any other work of French literature.

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The conclusion of the novel may be thought of

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not as a philosophical alternative to optimism,

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but as a prescribed  practical outlook.

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3 Responses to on nom de plume “revolting” yet advocate of prescribed practical outlook person (a la Aquinas-Summa Theologica II-I, Q.71/75) Voltaire 1694-1778 — The deeply Catholic Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote to his father the year of Voltaire’s death, saying, “The arch-scoundrel Voltaire has finally kicked the bucket!”

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  2. Pingback: Here we have Augustinian mystic Martin Luther — and Aquinas cognitive John Calvin — and yet, Bertrand Russell & Apostle John are Augustinian & Plato logos (analytical) epic movers — huli ‘au (upside down in Hawaiian), baby!

  3. Pingback: Here we have Augustinian mystic Martin Luther — and Aquinas cognitive John Calvin — and yet, Bertrand Russell & Apostle John are Augustinian & Plato logos (analytical) epic movers — huli ‘au (upside down in Hawaiian), baby!

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