Social entrepreneurship

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http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=images+social+entrepreneur&qpvt=images+social+entrepreneur&FORM=IGRE#view=detail&id=D28B49D02D5BE3EDF6A1246D3E040C51866047AC&selectedIndex=0

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_entrepreneurship

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Social entrepreneurship is the process of pursuing innovative solutions to social problems. More specifically, social entrepreneurs adopt a mission to create and sustain social value. They relentlessly pursue opportunities to serve this mission, while continuously adapting and learning. They draw upon appropriate thinking in both the business and nonprofit worlds and operate in all kinds of organizations: large and small; new and old; religious and secular; nonprofit, for-profit, and hybrid.

Business entrepreneurs typically measure performance in profit and return, but social entrepreneurs also take into account a positive return to society. Social entrepreneurship typically furthers broad social, cultural, and environmental goals and is commonly associated with the voluntary and not-for-profit sectors.  Profit can at times also be a consideration for certain companies or other enterprises.

Social entrepreneurship practiced in a world or international context is called international social entrepreneurship.

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The terms social entrepreneur and social entrepreneurship were used first in the literature on social change in the 1960s and 1970s.   The terms came into widespread use in the 1980s and 1990s, promoted by Bill Drayton the founder of Ashoka: Innovators for the Public,  and others such as Charles Leadbeater From the 1950s to the 1990s Michael Young was a leading promoter of social entrepreneurship and in the 1980s was described by Professor Daniel Bell at Harvard as ‘the world’s most successful entrepreneur of social enterprises’ because of his role in creating more than sixty new organizations worldwide, including the School for Social Entrepreneurs (SSE) which exists in the UK, Australia and Canada and which supports individuals to realize their potential and to establish, scale and sustain, social enterprises and social businesses. Another notable British social entrepreneur is Andrew Mawson OBE, who was given a peerage in 2007 because of his regeneration work including the Bromley by Bow Centre in East London.

Although the terms are relatively new, social entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurship can be found throughout history. A list of a few historically noteworthy people whose work exemplifies classic “social entrepreneurship” might include Florence Nightingale, founder of the first nursing school and developer of modern nursing practices; Robert Owen, founder of the cooperative movement; and Vinoba Bhave, founder of India’s Land Gift Movement. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries some of the most successful social entrepreneurs effectively straddled the civic, governmental, and business worlds – promoting ideas that were taken up by mainstream public services in welfare, schools, and health care.

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The internet and social networking websites have been pivotal resources for the success and collaboration of many Social Entrepreneurs. Captain Edward Zellem of www.AfghanProverbs.com has been working with Film Annex’s Afghan Development project as an example individual social entrepreneurship that merges his work with the study of languages and culture into the film platform at Film Annex. These media allow ideas to be heard by broader audiences, help networks and investors to develop globally, and achieve their goals with little or no start-up capital. The US-based nonprofit Zidisha leverages the recent spread of internet and mobile technologies in developing technologies to provide an eBay-style microlending platform where disadvantaged individuals in developing countries can interact directly with individual “peer-to-peer” lenders worldwide, sourcing small business loans at lower cost than has ever before been possible in most developing countries.  In addition the internet allows for the pooling of design resources using open source principles. For example, the rise of open-source appropriate technology as a sustainable development paradigm enables people all over the world to collaborate on solving local problems just as open source software development leverages collaboration.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashoka:_Innovators_for_the_Public#History

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Indian Emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Dynasty bloodily conquered almost all of the Indian subcontinent from around 269 BC to 232 BC, before having an epiphanic moment while gazing at the carnage he had caused. He then became a devotee of ahimsa (nonviolence), love, truth, tolerance and vegetarianism and is remembered in history as a philanthropic administrator.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Drayton   (born 1943)

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William “Bill” Drayton (born New York City, USA), is a social entrepreneur. Drayton was named by US News & World Report as one of America’s 25 Best Leaders in 2005.  He is responsible for the rise of the phrase “social entrepreneur,” a concept first found in print in 1972.

Drayton is the founder and current Chair of Ashoka: Innovators for the Public, a nonprofit organization dedicated to finding and fostering social entrepreneurs worldwide. Drayton also chairs the Community Greens, Youth Venture and Get America Working! organizations.

Drayton’s philosophy of social entrepreneurs are individuals with innovative solutions to society’s most pressing social problems.

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Bill Drayton’s mother emigrated to the US from Australia. His father was an American who became an explorer. Public service and strong values run through the history of both parents’ families – including several of the earliest anti-slavery abolitionist and women’s leaders in the U.S.   Drayton was born in 1943 in New York City.

Drayton attended high school at Andover and went on to Harvard where he received his BA in 1965. Drayton entered Balliol College, Oxford and received an MA in 1967, after which he went to Yale Law School where he received his JD in 1970.

Bill Drayton

Drayton became a manager and management consultant, working for McKinsey and Company as a consultant for almost ten years.  During the Carter administration (1977–1981) he was an Assistant Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency where he launched emissions trading among other reforms. He has been a visiting Professor at Harvard and Stanford.

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Drayton has received many awards and acknowledgments for his achievements. He was elected one of the early MacArthur Fellows for his work, including the founding of Ashoka. The American Society of Public Administration and the National Academy of Public Administration jointly awarded him their National Public Service Award  & he has also been named a Preiskel-Silverman Fellow for Yale Law School[8] and is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[9] On May 25, 2009 he was awarded an honorary degree, Doctorate of Humane Letters, by Yale University at Commencement.[10] David Gergen has called Drayton the “godfather of social entrepreneurship.”  And in 2008, Drayton was named a “visionary” as one of Utne Reader magazine’s “50 Visionaries Who Are Changing the World.” In 2011, Drayton won Spain’s prestigious Prince of Asturias Awards for international cooperation for his work promoting entrepreneurs. The prize foundation described him as a “driving force behind the figure of social entrepreneurs, men and women who undertake innovative initiatives for the common good.”  Within the next two weeks, Drayton also accepted the John W. Gardner Leadership award, “established in 1985 to honor outstanding Americans who exemplify the leadership and the ideals of John W. Gardner,” and the World Entrepreneurship Forum’s Social Entrepreneur Award.

 

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